Diabetes Mellitus commonly referred as Diabetes is a clinical syndrome characterized by increased blood sugar levels termed as hyperglycemia resulting from either lack or reduced effectiveness of insulin.
More than 400 million people suffer from Diabetes worldwide and the number is constantly on the rise and remains a major burden upon healthcare facilities. There are different causes of Diabetes Mellitus. Type II Diabetes represents 90 to 95% of all causes of Diabetes. All other types including Type I comprises of 5-10% of all cases.
Type II diabetes is usually diagnosed in adults and the onset is usually after 40 years but nowadays teenagers are getting Type II as well. As Type II diabetes is associated with obesity, family history, physical inactivity, unsatisfactory diet, increasing urbanization, etc.
Diabetes may be asymptomatic and therefore remain undiagnosed for a long time. Common symptoms of diabetes can be:
- Increased thirst
- Increased urination
- Blurring of vision
- Sensory symptoms especially in the legs e.g leg pain
Persons with Diabetes are at a risk of complications like, heart disease, stroke, eye disease leading to blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems etc. Diabetes accompanied by hypertension and hyperlipidemia increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Diagnosis of Diabetes
The diagnosis of Diabetes can be established by using any of the following criteria:
- Fasting blood sugar: >126mg/dl
- Random blood sugar: >200mg/dl
- HBA1c: >6.5
- Oral glucose tolerance test
Comprehensive Diabetes Management includes
- Patient Education
- Medical Plans
Caloric intake is usually distributed as follows:
- Carbohydrates 45 to 64%
- Protein 10 to 30%
- Fats <30%
- Caloric restriction for overweight individuals.
Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, reduces blood sugar. In general, 150min/week is recommended as part of a healthy life style and shown to assist the management of Diabetes.
Individualized guidance is essential which may be oral medicine and/or Insulin.
Goals of Therapy
- Alleviation of symptoms
- Achievement of:
- Blood Sugar control
- Blood Pressure control
- Lipid Target
- Prevention of acute and chronic complications of Diabetes.